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Applications

Finished Product

Ingredient

Phosphate Function

Baked Goods

Baking Powder

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate 28, Monocalcium Phosphate

Acid-Base reaction with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide (CO2)

Cakes, Mixes

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, Monocalcium Phosphate, Salp

Moderate action leavening; double action leavening

Cake Donuts

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate 40, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate 43

Fast action Leavening

Refrigerated Dough

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate 22

Heat activated leavening

Beverages

Colas

Phosphoric Acid

Acidulant

Chocolate Milk

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Suspend cocoa

Dry Mixes

Tricalcium Phosphate

Prevent caking; clouding agent

Buttermilk

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Disodium Phosphate

Maintain protein dispersion

Orange Juice

Tricalcium Phosphate

Calcium and Phosphorus fortification

Strawberry Flavor Milk

Tetrasodium Phosphate

Bind iron to maintain pink color

Cereals

Cooked Cereals

Disodium PhosphateTricalcium Phosphate

Decrease cooking time; Calcium and phosphorus fortification

Extruded, Dry Cereals

Disodium Phosphate, Trisodium Phosphate, Tricalcium Phosphate

Aid in the flow through extruder; calcium and phosphorus fortification

Cheese

Cottage Cheese

Phosphoric Acid

Direct set by acidification

Dips and Sauces

Disodium Phosphate, Trisodium Phosphate, Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Emuslifying Action

Imitation

Disodium Phosphate

Emulsifying Action

Cheese Slices

Disodium Phosphate, Trisodium Phosphate

Emulsifying Action

Starter Cultures

Disodium Phosphate, Di potassium Phosphate

Inhibit Phage

Chip Dips

Disodium Phosphate, Sodium Hexametaphosphate, Sodium Tripolyphosphate

Maintain homogeneity

Baked Chips

Monocalcium Phosphate

Develop characteristic surface

Imitation Dairy Products

Non-dairy creamer

Dipotassium Phosphate

Buffer for smooth mixing into coffee

Frozen desserts

Whipped topping

 

Egg Products

Whole

Monosodium Phosphate, Monopotassium Phosphate

Color stability

Egg whites

Sodium Hexa meta phosphate

Improve whipping, foam stability

Fruit

Tomatoes, berries

Monocalcium Phosphate

Maintain firmness when canned

Ice Cream

Hard, soft, imitation

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Prevent churning or gritty texture development of fat

Meat Products

Ham, corned beef

Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Sodium Tripolyphosphate/Sodium Hexametaphosphate Blends

Moisture binding

Sausage, franks, bologna

Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Tetrapotassium PhosphateTetrapotassium Phosphate
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate

Emulsion development
Reduced sodium
Cure color development

Roast beef

Sodium Tripolyphosphate

Moisture binding

Pasta

Pasta products

Disodium Phosphate

Decrease cook time

Potatoes

Baked Potato Chips

Monocalcium Phosphate

Create the bubbles
surface

French Fries, hash browns, potato flakes

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate

Bind iron to inhibit iron induced blackening

Poultry Products

Poultry products

Sodium Tripolyphosphate; Sodium Tripolyphosphate/Sodium Hexametaphosphate Blends

Moisture binding

Carcass washes

Trisodium Phosphate

Remove Salmonella and Campylobacter (bacterial pathogens)

Dairy Gels

Puddings, instant cheesecakes

Monocalcium Phosphate, Disodium Phosphate, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Salts to develop the thickened texture

Seafood     

Shrimp

Sodium Tripolyphosphate

Mechanical peeling of shrimp

Canned Crab

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate

Bind copper from blood to prevent blue discoloration

Canned Tuna

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate

Adjust pH to prevent struvite formation (crystals that look like glass)

Surimi

Sodium Tripolyphosphate/Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate Blends

Cryoprotectant to protein

          Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics    

Finished Product

Ingredient

Phosphate Function

Vitamins

Tricalcium Phosphate, Dimagnesium Phosphate

Calcium and phosphorus

Prescription and Over the Counter (OTC) Tablets

Dicalcium Phosphate, Tricalcium phosphate

Inert ingredient to fill and bind tablets

Toothpaste

Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate

Abrasive

Tooth Gels

Sodium Tripolyphosphate

Whitening agent

Tartar Control Gels and Pastes

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate

Tartar control

Smoker’s Toothpolish

Tricalcium Phosphate

Abrasive to remove stain

Opthalmics

Mono- and Di- Sodium Phosphates

Buffers to maintain a given pH

Tube Feedings

Monopotassium Phosphate, Mono- and Di- sodium phosphates

Potassium and/or Sodium replacing ingredient

Intravenous Fluids

Monopotassium Phosphate

Potassium replacing electrolyte

Mouthwash

Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Tartar control ingredients

Cosmetics

Mono- and Di- sodium phosphates

Buffers

Effervescent Tablets

Monocalcium Phosphate, Monohydrate

Production of carbon dioxide (CO2) via acid-base reaction with sodium bicarbonate

Bath Crystals

Monosodium Phosphate, Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Control of pH

         
Other Important Uses    

Finished Product

Ingredient

Phosphate Function

Antifreeze

Dipotassium Phosphate

Resistant to temperature extremes and buffer to maintain alkaline pH

Asphalt Modification

Polyphosphoric Acid

Modifies paving grade asphalt to meet performance requirements

Automatic Dishwashing Detergent

Sodium Tripolyphosphate

Softens water, suspends soil and serves as an anti-spotting agent

Boiler Water

Sodium or Potassium Tripolyphosphate; Sodium Hexametaphosphate; Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Prevent the build up of scale in boilers; remove scale that may have accumulated

Car Wash Detergent

Sodium Tripolyphosphate

Softens water, removes soils and keeps soil from redepositing

Fire Extinguishers

Mono- and Di- ammonium Phosphates

Fire retardant

Flat Panel Displays

Phosphoric Acid

Etchant and cleaner

Heavy Duty Cleaners

Trisodium Phosphates, Tetra- Sodium and Potassium Pyrophosphates, Sodium Potassium Pyrophosphate

Remove oils and greases

Industrial and Institutional Cleaners

Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Softens water, dissolves fats and oils and keeps them from redepositing

Integrated Circuitry

Phosphoric Acid

Etchant and cleaner

Latex Paint

Sodium Potassium Tripolyphosphate, Potassium Tripolyphosphate

Dispersing Agent

Milk Scale Removal

Phosphoric Acid

Dissolves calcium based milk scale on dairy processing equipment

Organic Synthesis

Polyphosphoric Acid

Production of phosphate esters and catalysts in organic reactions; Synthesis of dyes

Paint and Wall Cleaner

Trisodium Phosphate, Dodecahydrate

Removes oil, grease and soils

Metal Cleaning

Phosphoric Acid, Monosodium Phosphate

Remove grease and coatings prior to painting

Metal Finishing (Anodizing)

Phosphoric Acid

Creates bright, shiny finish to metal

Water Softening

Sodium HexametaphosphateSodium Tripolyphosphate

Bind Calcium and Magnesium

Water Treatment

Phosphoric AcidSodium Acid Pyrophosphate
Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Form surface coating on pipes to prevent leaching of lead; sequester minerals as iron

Oil Drilling

Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Make drilling muds more flowable

Fertilizers

Monoammonium Phosphate; Diammonium Phosphate ; Dipotassium Phosphate

Nutrients for plant growth

Citric Acid Fermentations

Dipotassium Phosphate

Growth factor

Cotton Processing

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Bind iron and vanadium that hinder peroxide bleach

Synthetic Rubber

Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate

Catalyst for butadiene and styrene

Styrofoam Production

Tricalcium Phosphate

Polymerization aid

Gypsum Wallboard

Sodium Trimetaphosphate

Firming of the composition board

Modified Starch

Sodium Tripolyphosphate ; Sodium Trimetaphosphate

Produce starch mono- and di- esters in sealers and coatings

Paper Processing

Sodium Tripolyphosphate; Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Dispersants for coating loads, colorants and resins

Ceramics

Tricalcium Phosphate

Impart opalescent

Oven Proof Bakeware

Tricalcium Phosphate

Impart heat resistance

Photocopier Toner

Tricalcium Phosphate

Dispersing agent

Industrial Sodium Chloride

Tricalcium Phosphate

Anticaking agent

Refractory

Phosphoric Acid

Impart heat resistance for processing in the steel industry

Cement

Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Sodium Monofluorophosphate

Retard or delay the thickening of cement slurries especially when poured at great depths

Dyeing Wool

Diammonium Phosphate

Control of pH in dye bath to allow even penetration of dye through the wool